Publications archive

The following are recent and past publications by ICCS group members. We also maintain a thesis archive of past PhD and MSc theses supervised within the group.

Because of copyright laws we are unable to post pdfs of recent articles. Please email either the lead author or E.J. for a pdf of any papers you are interested in, or visit the relevant journal home page. All ICCS papers have been Open Access since April 2014, so you will be able to download the paper for free from the journal home page.


Papers currently in press

Wright, J.H., Hill, N.A.O., Rowcliffe, J.M., Kümpel, N.F., Roe, D., Booker, F., Day, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (in press) Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods. Conservation Biology.

Woodhouse, E., Mills, M.A., McGowan, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (in press) Religious relationships with the environment in a Tibetan rural community: interactions and contrasts with popular notions of indigenous environmentalism. Human Ecology

Harrison, M., Baker, J., Twinamatsiko, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (in press) Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions. Conservation Biology

Costelloe, B., Collen, B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Craigie, I., McRae, L., Rondonini, C., Nicholson, E. (in press) Global biodiversity indicators reflect the modelled impacts of protected area policy change. Conservation Letters

Moro, M., Fischer, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Lowass, A., Naiman, L.C., Hanley, N. (in press) A stated preference investigation of household demand for illegally-hunted bushmeat in the Serengeti, Tanzania. Animal Conservation

Nuno, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bunnefeld, N. (in press) Detecting abundance trends under uncertainty: the influence of budget, observation error and environmental change. Animal Conservation

Published journal articles (by year)


Pooley, S. (2016). The Entangled Relations of Humans and Nile Crocodiles in Africa, c.1840-1992.Environment and History 22(3): 421-454.
DOI: 10.3197/096734016X14661540219357


Pooley, Simon (2015) Endangered. Environmental Humanities

Washington, H., Baillie, J. Waterman, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of conservation attention at the species level. Oryx

Pan, Y., Wei, G., Cunningham, A., Li, S., Shu, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Turvey, S. (2015) Using local ecological knowledge to assess the status of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) in Guizhou Province, China. Oryx

McNamara, J., Kusimi, J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Cowlishaw, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) The rise of the rodent: spatio-temporal dynamics of a west African bushmeat hunting system. Conservation Biology

Sainsbury, K., Burgess, N.D., Sabuni, F., Howe, C., Puis, E., Killenga, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) Evaluating stakeholder perceptions of the social impacts of community conservation in Tanzania: a test of the Ranked Outcomes approach. Biological Conservation

Wallace, A.P.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Jones, J.P.G., Bunnefeld, N., Young, R., Nicholson, E. (2015) Quantifying the short-term costs of conservation for fishers at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. PLoS One 10(6): e0129440

Tidd, A., Vermard, Y., Marchal, P., Pinnegar, J., Blanchard, J., Milner-Gulland , E.J. (2015) Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice. PLoS One 10(3): e0121498

Clements, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) The impacts of Payments for Environmental Services and Protected Areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia. Conservation Biology 29, 78-87

Maxwell, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Jones, J.P.G., Knight, A.T., Bunnefeld, N., Nuno, A., Bal, P., Earle, S., Watson, J.E.M., Rhodes, J. (2015) Being smart about SMART environmental targets. Science 347, 1075-1076.

Travers, H., Winney, K., Clements, T., Evans, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) A tale of two villages: an investigation of conservation-driven land tenure reform in a Cambodian Protection Forest. Land Use Policy 43, 186-196.

2015, S. Pooley, John E. Fa, Robert Nasi, ‘No conservation silver lining to Ebola’, Conservation Biology, 29:3, 965–967. Available through open access at:

2015, S. Pooley, ‘Using predator attack data to save lives, human and crocodilian’, Oryx: The International Journal of Conservation, available as ‘first view’ at:


Carrasco, L.R., Larrosa, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Edwards, D.P. (2014) A double-edged sword for tropical conservation. Science 346, 38-40.

Gossa, C., Fisher, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) The research-implementation gap: opinions of practitioners and researchers from developing countries on the role of peer-reviewed literature in conservation science. Oryx

Bladon, A.J., Short, K., Mohammed, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Payments for Ecosystem Services in developing world fisheries. Fish and Fisheries

Bull, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Suttle, K.B., Singh, N. (2014) Comparing biodiversity offset calculation methods with a common case study. Biological Conservation

Nyamsuren, B. et al. (2014) Crossing a new line: conserving the world’s finest grassland amidst ambitious national development. Conservation Biology

Milner-Gulland, E.J., McGregor, J.A., Agarwala, M., Atkinson, G., Bevan, P., Clements, T., Daw, T., Homewood, K., Kumpel, N., Lewis, J., Mourato, S., Palmer Fry, B., Redshaw, M., Rowcliffe, J.M., Suon, S., Wallace, G., Washington, H., Wilkie, D. (2014) How can conservationists account for their impact on human wellbeing. Conservation Biology

Alexander, J., McNamara, J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Oppong, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) The role of bushmeat in a West African agricultural landscape Oryx

Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Managing social-ecological systems under uncertainty: implementation in the real world. Ecology and Society19 (2):52

Hoshino, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Hillary, R. (2014) Why model assumptions matter for natural resource management: interactions between model structure and life histories in fishery models. Journal of Applied Ecology51, 632-641

Bull, J.W, Gordon, A., Law, E., Suttle, KB., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity. Conservation Biology28, 799-809

Woodhouse, E., McGowan, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Fungal gold and firewood on the Tibetan plateau: Examining access to diverse ecosystem provisioning services within a rural community. Oryx48, 30-38

Davies, T.K., Mees, C.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) The past, present and future use of drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs) in the Indian Ocean. Marine Policy 45, 163-170

Edwards, C.T.T., Bunnefeld, N., Balme, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance. PNAS111, 539-543 [Featured News article]

Pooley, S., Mendelsohn, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science. Conservation Biology28, 22-32

Knott, E., Bunnefeld, N, Huber, D., Reljic, S., Kerezi, V., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) The potential impacts of changes in bear hunting policy for hunting organisations in Croatia. European Journal of Wildlife Research60, 85-97

Jones, I., Bull, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Esipov, A., Suttle, K.B. (2014) Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas extraction to facilitate biodiversity offsetting. Ecology and Evolution 4, 79-90

Papworth, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Slocombe, K. (2013) The natural place to begin: the ethnoprimatology of the Waorani. American Journal of Primatology 75, 1117-1128

Bunnefeld, N., Edwards, C.T.T., Atickem, A., Hailu, F. Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting: a Management Strategy Evaluation approach Conservation Biology27, 1344-1354

Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N., Naiman, L., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Applying novel methods to assess the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the Serengeti Conservation Biology27, 1355-1365

Waylen, K., Fischer, A., McGowan, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Deconstructing community for conservation: why simple assumptions are not sufficient. Human Ecology 41, 575-585

Bull, J., Suttle, K.B., Gordon, A., Singh, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx47, 369-380

Watson, C., Mourato, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains Eco-Region, Ethiopia. Ecology & Society 18(3), 6.

Coad, L., Schleicher, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Starkey, M., Marthews, T., Manica, A., Balmford, A., Mbombe,W., Ndop, T., Abernethy, K.. (2013) Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon. Conservation Biology27, 270-280.

Papworth, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Slocombe, K. (2013) Hunted woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) show threat-sensitive responses to human presence. PLoS One8(4), e62000

Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution11, 203-210.

Sutherland, W.J., Freckleton, R.P., Godfray, H.C.J., Beissinger, S.R., Benton, T., Cameron, D.D., Carmel, Y., Coomes, D.A., Coulson, T., Emmerson, M.C., Hails, R.S., Hays, G.C., Hodgson, D.J., Hutchings, M.J., Johnson, D., Jones, J.P.G., Keeling, M.J., Kokko, H., Kunin, W.E, Lambin, X., Lewis, O.T., Malhi, Y., Mieszkowska, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Norris,
K., Phillimore, A.B., Purves, D.W., Reid, J.M., Reuman,
D.C., Thompson, K., Travis, J.M.J., Turnbull, L.A., Wardle, D.A., Wiegand, T. (2013) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology101, 58-67.

Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Matching observations and reality: Using simulation models to improve monitoring under uncertainty in the Serengeti. Journal of Applied Ecology50, 488-498

Damerell, P., Howe, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour. Environmental Research Letters 8, 015016

Clements, T.J., Rainey, H., An, D. Rours, V., Tan, S., Thong. S., Sutherland, W.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) An evaluation of the effectiveness of a direct payment for biodiversity conservation: the Bird Nest Protection Program in the Northern Plains of Cambodia. Biological Conservation 157, 50-59.


Pooley, S. 2013. Historians are from Venus, Ecologists are from Mars. Conservation Biology 27 (6) 1481-3.

Pooley, S., J. Andrew Mendelsohn and E.J. Milner-Gulland. 2014. ‘Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science’, Conservation Biology, 28: 22-32.

Tidd, A.N. (2013). Effective fishing effort trip indicators and their use for efficient spatial management in mixed demersal fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, doi: 10.1111/fme.1202

Raymond, C.M. and A.T. Knight. 2013. Applying social research techniques to improve the effectiveness of conservation planning. BioScience 63(5): 320-321

Coad, L., Schleicher, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Starkey, M., Marthews, T., Manica, A., Balmford, A., Mbombe,W., Ndop, T., Abernethy, K.. (2013) Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon. Conservation Biology 27, 270-280.

Papworth, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Slocombe, K. (2013) Hunted woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) show threat-sensitive responses to human presence. PLoS One 8(4), e62000

Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11, 203-210

Bull, J., Suttle, K.B., Gordon, A., Singh, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx. doi:10.1017/S003060531200172X

Sutherland, W.J., Freckleton, R.P., Godfray, H.C.J., Beissinger, S.R., Benton, T., Cameron, D.D., Carmel, Y., Coomes, D.A., Coulson, T., Emmerson, M.C., Hails, R.S., Hays, G.C., Hodgson, D.J., Hutchings, M.J., Johnson, D., Jones, J.P.G., Keeling, M.J., Kokko, H., Kunin, W.E, Lambin, X., Lewis, O.T., Malhi, Y., Mieszkowska, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Norris,
K., Phillimore, A.B., Purves, D.W., Reid, J.M., Reuman,
D.C., Thompson, K., Travis, J.M.J., Turnbull, L.A., Wardle, D.A., Wiegand, T. (2013) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology 101, 58-67.

Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Matching observations and reality: Using simulation models to improve monitoring under uncertainty in the Serengeti. Journal of Applied Ecology 50, 488-498

Damerell, P., Howe, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour. Environmental Research Letters 8, 015016

Clements, T.J., Rainey, H., An, D. Rours, V., Tan, S., Thong. S., Sutherland, W.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) An evaluation of the effectiveness of a direct payment for biodiversity conservation: the Bird Nest Protection Program in the Northern Plains of Cambodia. Biological Conservation 157, 50-59.


Gill D.J., Fa J.E., Rowcliffe J.M., Kümpel N.F. 2012. Drivers of change in hunter offtake and hunting strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea. Conservation Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01876.

White, R.L., Jn. Baptiste, T., Dornelly, A., Morton, M.N., O’Connell, M.J. & Young, R.P. (2012). Population responses of the Endangered White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus to a tourist development in Saint Lucia – conservation implications from a spatial modelling approach. Bird Conservation International, 22 (4), 468-485.

Ane Iriondo, Dorleta García, Marina Santurtún, José Castro, Iñaki Quincoces, Sigrid Lehuta, Stephanie Mahévas, Paul Marchal, Alex Tidd , Clara Ulrich. (2012). Managing Mixed Fisheries in the European Western Waters: application of Fcube methodology. Fisheries Research, 134–136, 6–16.

Tidd, A. N., Hutton, T., Kell, L. T., and Blanchard, J. L (2012). Dynamic prediction of effort re-allocation in mixed fisheries. Fisheries Research 125–126, 243–253.

Nicholson, E., Collen, B., Barausse, A., Blanchard, J., Costelloe, B., Sullivan, K., Underwood, F.M.,  Burn, R.W., Fritz, S., Jones, J.P.G., McRae, L., Possingham, H.P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Robust policy decisions with global biodiversity indicators. PLoS One 7, e41128

Howe, C. Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Evaluating indices of conservation success: a comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based methodologies. Animal Conservation 15, 217-226. [Featured paper]

Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Modelling the effect of individual strategic behaviour on community-level outcomes of conservation interventions. Environmental Conservation DOI:10.1017/S0376892912000124

Waylen, K., Fischer, A., McGowan, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Interactions between a collectivist culture and Buddhist teachings influence environmental concerns and behaviors in the Republic of Kalmykia. Society and Natural Resources DOI:10.1080/08941920.2012.663065

Papworth, S. K., Bunnefeld, N., Slocombe, K. and Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2012), Movement ecology of human resource users: using net squared displacement, biased random bridges and resource utilization functions to quantify hunter and gatherer behaviour. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 584-594.

Hill, N.A.O., Rowcliffe, M., Koldeway, H., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) The interaction between seaweed farming as an alternative occupaction and fisher numbers in the Central Philippines. Conservation Biology 26, 324-334.

Howe, C., Obgenova, O., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Evaluating the effectiveness of a public awareness campaign as a conservation intervention: the saiga antelope Saiga tatarica in Russia. Oryx 46, 269-277

Baker, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Leader-Williams, N. (2012) Park Gazettement and Integrated Conservation and Development as Factors in Community Conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conservation Biology 26, 160-170.

Hoshino, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Hillary, R. (2012) Bioeconomic Management Strategies for Short-lived Species: A Case Study of Pacific Saury (Cololabis saira) and Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus). Fisheries Research 121-122, 17-30

Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Jones, J.P.G. (2012) The challenge of monitoring biodiversity in payment for environmental services interventions. Biological Conservation 144, 2832-2841

Schlüter, M., McAllister, R.R.J., Arlinghaus, R., Bunnefeld, N., Eisenack, K., Hölker, F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Müller, B., Nicholson, E., Quaas, M, Stöven, M. (2012) New horizons for managing the environment: A review of coupled social-ecological systems modeling. Natural Resource Modeling 25, 219-272.


Mahévas, S., Vermard, Y., Hutton, T., Iriondo, A., Jadaud, A., Maravelias, C. D., Punzón, A., Sacchi, J., Tidd, A., Tsitsika, E., Marchal, P., Goascoz, N., Mortreux, S., and Roos, D. (2011). An investigation of human vs. technology-induced variation in catchability for a selection of European fishing fleets. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2252– 2263.

Tidd, A.N., Hutton, T., Kell, L.T., Padda, G. (2011). Exit and entry of fishing vessels: an evaluation of factors affecting investment decisions in the North Sea English beam trawl fleet. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68, 961–971.

Watson, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Mourato, S. (2011) Direct consumptive use value of ecosystem goods and services in the Bale Mountains Eco-region, Ethiopia. Walia Special Edition, 181-196

Hargreaves-Allen, V., Mourato, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) A global evaluation of Coral Reef Management Performance: Are MPAs Producing Conservation and Socio-economic Improvements? Environmental Management 47, 687-700

Katzner, T.E., Ivy, J.A.R., Bragin, E.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., DeWoody, J.A. (2011) Conservation implications of inaccurate estimation of cryptic population size. Animal Conservation 14, 328-322.

Allebone-Webb, S., Kumpel, N.F., Rist, J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) The use of market data to assess bushmeat hunting sustainability: Evidence from Equatorial Guinea. Conservation Biology 25, 597-60

Travers, H., Clements, T., Keane, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Incentives for cooperation: The effect of institutional controls on common pool resource extraction. Ecological Economics 71, 151-161.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. 367, 270-278.

Bunnefeld, N., Hoshino, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Management Strategy Evaluation: A powerful tool for conservation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26, 441-447

Gibbons, J., Nicholson, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Jones, J.P.G. (2011) When should we pay for biodiversity conservation by action or results? Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 1218-1226.

Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Encounter data in ecology and resource management: Pitfalls and possibilities. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 1164-1173.

Collins, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Macdonald, E., Macdonald, D.W. (2011) Pleiotropy and Charisma determine winners and losers in the REDD+ game: all biodiversity is not equal. Tropical Conservation Science 4, 261-266

Macdonald, E., Collins, M., Clayton, L., Malhi, Y., Fisher, J.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Macdonald, D. (2011) Wildlife Conservation and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation in a case study of Nantu Wildlife Reserve, Sulawesi: 1. The effectiveness of forest protection – many measures, one goal. Environmental Science and Policy 14, 697-708

Collins, M., Macdonald, E., Clayton, L., Dunggio, I., Macdonald, D., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Wildlife Conservation and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation in a case study of Nantu Wildlife Reserve, Sulawesi: 2. An institutional framework for REDD implementation. Environmental Science and Policy 14, 709-718

de Ornellas, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Nicholson, E. (2011) The impact of data realities on conservation planning Biological Conservation 144, 1980-1988.

Howe, C., Medzhidov, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative conservation interventions in influencing stated behavioural intentions: A case study of the saiga antelope in Kalmykia. Environmental Conservation 38, 37-44.

Keane, A., Ramarolahy, A.A., Jones, J.P.G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Evidence for the effects of education and environmental engagement on knowledge of wildlife laws in Madagascar. Conservation Letters 4, 55-63.

Singh, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Monitoring ungulates in Central Asia: Current constraints and future potential. Oryx 45, 38-49

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management. PNAS 108, 1741-1746

Singh, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Conserving a moving target: Planning protection for a migratory species as its distribution changes. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 35-46 [chosen as Science magazine’s Editor’s Choice, Feb 11th 2011]

Jones, J.P.G., Collen, B., Baxter, P.W.J., Bubb, P., Illian, J.B., Katzner, T.E., Keane, A., Loh, J., McDonald-Madden, E., Nicholson, E., Pereira, H.M., Possingham, H.P., Pullin, A.S., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) The why, what and how of global biodiversity indicators: Looking beyond 2010. Conservation Biology 25, 450-457


Kumpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) Assessing sustainability in a long-term rotational bushmeat hunting system. Conservation Biology 24, 861-871

van Vliet, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bousquet, F., Saqalli, M., Nasi, R. (2010) The effect of small-scale heterogeneity in prey and hunter distributions on the sustainability of bushmeat hunting. Conservation Biology 24, 1327-1337.

Aiyadurai, A., Singh, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Wildlife hunting by indigenous tribes: A case study from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Oryx 44, 564-572.

Guillera-Arroita, G., Lahoz-Monfort, J.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Young, R.P., Nicholson, E. (2010) Monitoring and conservation of the critically endangered Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis. Madagascar Conservation and Development 5, 103-109.

Coad, L., Abernethy, K., Balmford, A, Manica, A, Airey, L., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Distribution and use of income from bushmeat in a rural village, Central Gabon. Conservation Biology 24, 1510-1518

Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rahajaharison, M., Jones, J.P.G. (2010) The impact of a community-based Payment for Environmental Services (PES) intervention on forest-use behaviors in Menabe, Madagascar. Conservation Biology 24, 1488-1498.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Arroyo, B., Bellard, C., Blanchard, J., Bunnefeld, N., Delibes-Mateos, M., Edwards, C., Nuno, A., Palazy, L., Reljic, S., Riera, P., Skrbinsek, T. (2010) New directions in Management Strategy Evaluation through cross-fertilisation between fisheries science and terrestrial conservation. Biology Letters 6, 719-722

Lahoz Monfort, J., Guillera-Arroita, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Young, R.P., Nicholson, E. (2010) Satellite imagery as a single source of predictor variables for habitat suitability modelling: how Landsat can inform the conservation of a critically endangered lemur. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 1094-1102.

Black, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Sotherton, N., Mourato, S. (2010) Valuing visitor preferences for complex environmental goods: Landscape and biodiversity in the North Pennines. Environmental Conservation 37, 136-146.

Waylen, K., Fischer, A., McGowan, P. Thirgood, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) The effect of cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions. Conservation Biology 24, 1119-1129.

Singh, N.J., Grachev, Iu.A., Bekenov, A.B.,Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Saiga antelope calving site selection is increasingly driven by human disturbance. Biological Conservation 143, 1770-1779.

Singh, N.J., Grachev, Iu.A., Bekenov, A.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Tracking greenery in Central Asia: The migration of the saiga antelope. Diversity and Distributions 16, 663-675

Sommerville, M., Jones, J.P.G., Rahajaharison,, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Local perceptions of fairness and benefit distribution in a Payment for Environmental Service intervention, Menabe, Madagascar. Ecological Economics 69, 1262-1271.

Clements, T., John, A., Nielsen, K., Dara, A., Setha, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Direct Payments for Biodiversity Conservation: Comparison of Three Schemes from Cambodia. Ecological Economics 69, 1283-1291.

Kumpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) Incentives for hunting: The role of bushmeat in the household economy in rural Equatorial Guinea. Human Ecology 38, 251-258.

Guillera-Arroita, G., Lahoz Monfort, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Young, R.P., Nicholson, E. (2010) Evaluating occupancy for monitoring the critically endangered Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis). Endangered Species Research 11, 157-166.

Rist, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) Hunter reporting of catch per unit effort as a monitoring tool in a bushmeat harvesting system Conservation Biology 24, 489-499.


Bunnefeld, N., Baines, D., Newborn, D., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Factors affecting unintentional harvesting selectivity in a monomorphic species. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 485–492. (e-mail for a pdf)

Bull, J., Nilsen, E.B., Mysterud, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Survival on the border: a population model to examine management options for Norway’s wolves. Wildlife Biology 15, 412-424.

Fisher, Z.S.Y., Cartwright, S., Bealey, C., Rayaleh, H., McGowan, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) The Decline of the Djibouti Francolin in the Forêt du Day, Djibouti. Oryx 43, 542-551.

Kuhl, A., Mysterud, A., Grachev, Iu.A., Bekenov, A.B., Ubushaev, B.S., Lushchekina, A.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Monitoring population productivity in the saiga antelope. Animal Conservation 12, 355-363.

Kuhl, A., Balinova, N., Bykova, E., Esipov, A., Arylov, Iu.A., Lushchekina, A.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (in press) The role of saiga poaching in rural communities: Linkages between attitudes, socio-economic circumstances and behaviour. Biological Conservation 142, 1442-1449

Kumpel, N.F., Rowcliffe, J.M., Cowlishaw, G.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Trapper profiles and strategies: insights into sustainability from hunter behaviour. Animal Conservation 12, 531-539.

Mace, G.M., Collar, N., Gaston, K.J., Hilton-Taylor, C., Akçakaya, H.R., Leader-Williams, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Stuart, S.N. (online early) Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology. (e-mail for a pdf)

McConville, A.J., Grachev, Iu.A., Keane, A., Coulson, T., Bekenov, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Reconstructing the observation process to correct for changing detection probability of a critically endangered species. Endangered Species Research 6, 231–237. (open access)

Nicholson, E., Mace,, G.M., Armsworth, P.R., Atkinson, G., Buckle, S., Clements, T., Ewers, R.M., Fa, J.E., Gardner, T.A., Gibbons, J., Grenyer, R., Metcalfe, R., Mourato, S., Muûls, M., Osborn, D., Reuman, D.C., Watson, C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) A research agenda for ecosystem services in a changing world. Journal of Applied Ecology [online early]

Nicholson,E. Keith, D. A., Wilcove, D. S. (2009) Assessing the threat status of ecological communities. Conservation Biology, 23 (2): 259–274. (e-mail for a pdf)

Nicholson, E. & Ovaskainen O. (2009) Conservation prioritization using metapopulation models. pp 110–121, in Spatial conservation prioritisation: quantitative methods and computational tools (eds. Moilanen A, Possingham HP & Wilson KA). Oxford University Press, Oxford (e-mail for a pdf)

Papworth, S., Coad, L., Rist, J., Miller-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Evidence for Shifting Baseline Syndrome in conservation. Conservation Letters 2, 93-100.

Rist, L., Shankaar, U., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Ghazoul, J. (2009) The use of Traditional ecological knowledge in forest management: an example from India. Ecology & Society 15 (1): 3. [online] URL:

Rist, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2009) The importance of hunting and habitat in determining the abundance of tropical forest species. Biotropica 41, 700-710.

Sommerville, M, J. P.G. Jones, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. (2009) A revised conceptual framework for payments for environmental services. Ecology and Society 14, 34. [online] URL:

Sutherland, W.J., Adams, W.M., Aronson, R.B., Aveling, R., Blackburn, T.M., Broad, S., Ceballos, G., Côté, I.M., Cowling, R.M., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Dinerstein, E., Ferraro, P.J., Fleishman, E., Gascon, C., Hunter Jr, M., Hutton, J., Kareiva, P., Kuria, A., Macdonald, D.W., MacKinnon, K., Madgwick, F.J., Mascia, M.B., McNeely, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Moon, S., Morley, C.G., Nelson, S., Osborn, D., Pai, M., Parsons, E.C.M., Peck, L.S., Possingham, H., Prior, S.V., Pullin, A.S., Rands, M.R.W., Ranganathan, J., Redford, K.H., Rodriguez, J.P., Seymour, F., Sobel, F., Sodhi, N.S., Stott, A., Vance-Borland, K. & Watkinson, A.R. (in press). An assessment of the 100 questions of greatest importance to the conservation of global biological diversity. Conservation Biology, 23, 557-567.

Waylen, K.A., McGowan, P., Pawi Study Group, Milner-Gulland, E.J. Ecotourism positively affects awareness and attitudes but not conservation behaviors: a case study at Grande Riviere, Trinidad. Oryx, 43(3):343–351


Pilling, G. M., Kell, L. T., Hutton, T., Bromley, P. J., Tidd, A. N., and Bolle, L. J. (2008). Can economic and biological management objectives be achieved by the use of MSY-based reference points? A North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and sole (Solea solea) case study. – ICES Journal of marine Science, 65: 1069–1080.

Crookes, D.J., Humphreys, D., Masroh, F., Tarchie, B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) The role of livelihoods in village hunting in the Ashanti region, Ghana. South African Journal of Economic & Management Sciences 10, 457-469. (email for a PDF)

Hall, R.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Courchamp, F. Endangering the endangered: the effect of perceived rarity on species extinction. Conservation Letters 1, Issue 2, 75-81. (email for a pdf)

Jones, J.P.G., . Andriamarovolona , M.M., Hockley, N., Gibbons, J.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) Testing the use of interviews as a tool for monitoring trends in the harvesting of wild species. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 1205-1212 (email for a pdf)

Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Edwards-Jones, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation 11, 75-82. (email for a pdf)

Kumpel, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G.C., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2008) Impact of gun-hunting on diurnal primates in continental Equatorial Guinea. International Journal of Primatology 29, 1065-1082. (e-mail for a pdf)

Ling, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. When does spatial structure matter in models of wildlife harvesting? Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 63-71 (email for a PDF)

Ling, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. Developing an artificial ecology for use as a strategic management tool: a case study of ibex hunting in the North Tien Shan. Ecological Modelling 210, 15-36 (email for a PDF)

Proaktor, G., Coulson, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) Demographic consequences of the cost of reproduction. Ecology 89, 2604–2611. (e-mail for a pdf)

Rist, J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Cowlishaw, G.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) Evaluating measures of hunting effort in a bushmeat system. Biological Conservation 141, 2086-2099. (e-mail for a pdf)

Rist, L., Shankaar, U., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Ghazoul, J. (2008) Managing mistletoes: the value of local practices for a non-timber forest resource. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 1684-1691. (email for a pdf)


Proaktor, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Coulson T (2007) Age-related shapes of the cost of reproduction in vertebrates. Biology Letters (email for a PDF)

Proaktor, G., Coulson, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2007) Evolutionary responses to harvesting in ungulates. Journal of Animal Ecology 76, 669-678. (email for a PDF)

Clarke, S.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bjorndal, T. (2007) Social, economic and regulatory drivers of the shark fin trade. Marine Resource Economics 22, 305-328. (email for a PDF)

Bennett, E.L., Blencowe, E., Brandon, K., Brown, D., Burn, R.W., Cowlishaw, G.C., Davies, G., Dublin, H., Fa, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Robinson, J.R., Rowcliffe, J.M., Underwood, F., Wilkie, D. (in press) Hunting for Consensus: a statement on reconciling bushmeat harvest, conservation and development policy in west and central Africa. Conservation Biology 21, 884-887 (email for a PDF)

Katzner, T.E., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bragin, E.A. (2007) Using modelling to assess and improve monitoring: are we collecting the right data? Conservation Biology 21(1), 241-252 (email for a PDF)

Kuhl, A., Mysterud, A., Erdnenov, G.I., Lushchekina, A.A., Grachev, Iu. A., Bekenov, A.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2007) The big spenders of the steppe: sex-specific maternal allocation and twinning in the saiga antelope. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274, 1293-1299. (email for a PDF)

Nilsen, E.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Schofield, L., Mysterud, A., Stenseth N.Chr., Coulson, T. (2007) Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 995-1002. (email for a PDF)

Morgan, E.R., Medley, G.F., Torgerson, P.R., Shaikenov, B., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2007) Parasite transmission in a declining migratory saiga antelope population in Kazakhstan. Ecological Modelling 200 511-520 (email for a PDF)


Bunnefeld, N., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., van Duijn, M.A.J., Andersen, R. (2006) Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx in a human-dominated landscape: effects of sex and reproductive status. Journal of Zoology, London 270: 31-39 (pdf)

Clarke, S.C., McAllister, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kirkwood, G.P., Michielsens, C.P., Agnew, D.J., Pikitch, E.K., Nakano, H., Shivji, M.S. (2006) Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. Ecology Letters 9, 1115-1126 (pdf)

Collen, B., Bykova, E., Ling, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Purvis, A. (2006) Extinction risk: a comparative analysis of Central Asian vertebrates. Biodiversity and Conservation 15, 1859-1871 (email EJ for a pdf)

Crookes, D.J., Ankudey, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) The usefulness of a long-term bushmeat market dataset as an indicator of system dynamics. Environmental Conservation 32, 333-339 (email EJ for a pdf)

Crookes, D.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Wildlife and economic policies affecting the bushmeat trade: a framework for analysis. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36(2), 159-165 (email EJ for a pdf)

Hancock, P.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Keeling, M.J. (2006) Modelling the “many wrongs” principle: the navigational advantages of aggregation in nomadic foragers. J. Theoretical Biology 240, 302-310 (email Penny for a pdf)

Hancock, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Optimal movement strategies for social foragers in unpredictable environments. Ecology 87, 2094-2102 (email Penny for a pdf)

Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Modelling populations of long-lived birds of prey for conservation: a study of Imperial eagles in Kazakhstan. Biological Conservation 132, 322-335 (email EJ for a pdf)

Kholodova, M.V., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Easton, A.J., Amgalan, L., Arylov, Iu., Bekenov, A., Grachev, Iu.A., Lushchekina, A.A., Ryder, O. (2006) Population genetics of the critically endangered saiga antelope. Oryx 40, 103-107. (email EJ for a pdf)

Ling, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Assessment of the sustainability of bushmeat hunting based on dynamic bioeconomic models. Conservation Biology 20, 1294-1299. (email EJ for a pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kerven, C., Behnke, R., Wright, I., Smailov, A. (2006) A multi-agent system model of pastoralist behaviour in Kazakhstan. Ecological Complexity 3: 23-36. (email EJ for a pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kreuzberg-Mukhina, E., Grebot, B., Ling, S., Bykova, E., Abdusalamov, I., Bekenov, A., Gärdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Salnikov, V., Stogova, L. (2006) Application of IUCN red listing criteria at the regional and national levels: A case study from Central Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15, 1873-1886 (email EJ for a pdf)

Morgan, E.R., Lundervold, M., Medley, G.F., Shaikenov, B.S., Torgerson, P.R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. Assessing risks of disease transmission between wildlife and livestock: the Saiga antelope as a case study. (2006) Biological Conservation 131, 244-254 (email Eric for a pdf)

Morgan, E.R., Torgerson, P.R., Shaikenov, B., Medley, G.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Agricultural restructuring and gastrointestinal parasitism in domestic ruminants on the rangelands of Kazakhstan. Veterinary Parasitology 139, 180-191. (email Eric for a pdf)


Busch, J.D., Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E., Keim, P. (2005) Tetranucleotide microsatellites for aquila and haliaeetus eagles. Molecular Ecology Notes 5, 39-41. (pdf)

Damania, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Crookes, D.J. (2005) A bioeconomic model of bushmeat hunting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272, 259-266. (pdf)

East, T., Kümpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rowcliffe, J.M. (2005) Determinants of urban bushmeat consumption in Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea. Biological Conservation 126: 206-215. (pdf)

Hancock, P.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Keeling, M. (2005) An individual-based model of bearded pig population abundance. Ecological Modelling 181, 123-137. (pdf)

Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E.A., Knick, S.T., Smith, A.T. (2005) Relationship between demographics and diet specificity of Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) in Kazakhstan. Ibis 147(3): 576-586. (pdf)

Keane, A., de Brooke, de M.L., Mcgowan, P.J.K. (2005) Correlates of extinction risk and hunting pressure in gamebirds (Gallifromes). Biological Conservation 126: 216-233. (pdf)

Morgan, E.R., Shaikenov, B., Torgerson, P.R., Medley, G.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2005) Helminths of saiga antelopes in Kazakhstan: Implications for conservation and livestock production. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41, 149-162 (pdf)

POST (2005) The bushmeat trade. POSTnote 236. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, UK. (pdf)

Rowcliffe, J.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G. (2005) Do bushmeat consumers have other fish to fry? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 274-275 (pdf)

Rudnick, J.A., Katzner,T.E., Bragin, E.A., Rhodes, O.E. Jr., DeWoody, J.A. (2005) Using naturally shed feathers for individual identification, genetic parentage analyses, and population monitoring in an endangered Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) population from Kazakhstan. Molecular Ecology 14(10): 2959-2967. (pdf)


Clarke, S. (2004) Shark product trade in Hong Kong and Mainland China and implementation of the CITES shark listings. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China. 53 pp. (pdf)

Clarke, S. (2004) Understanding pressures on fishery resources through trade statistics: a pilot study of four products in the Chinese dried seafood market. Fish and Fisheries 5: 53-74. (pdf)

Clarke, S., McAllister, M., Michielsens, C. (2004) Estimates of shark species composition and numbers associated with the shark fin trade based on Hong Kong auction data. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 1-13. (pdf)

Katzner, T.E., Hsun Lai, C., Gardiner, J.D., Foggin, J.M., Pearson, D., Smith, A.T. (2004) Adjacent nesting by Lammergeier Gypateus barbatus and Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis on the Tibetan Plateau, China. Forktail 20, 94-96. (pdf)

Leppert, L.L., Layman, S., Bragin, E.A., Katzner, T. (2004) Survey for Hemoparasites in imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis), and white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Kazakhstan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40(2), 316-319. (pdf)

Lundervold, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., O’Callaghan, C., Hamblin, C., Corteyn, A., Macmillan, A.P. (2004) A serological survey of ruminant livestock in Kazakhstan during post-Soviet transitions in farming and disease control. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 45, 211-224. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Coulson, T.N., Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2004) Sex differences and data quality as determinants of income from hunting red deer. Wildlife Biology 10, 187-201. (pdf)

Morgan, E.R., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Torgerson, P., Medley, G.M. (2004) Ruminating on complexity: macroparasites of wildlife and livestock in space and time. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19, 181-188. (pdf)

Polet, G., Ling, S. (2004) Protecting mammal diversity: opportunities and constraints for pragmatic conservation management in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Oryx 38(2), 1-11.


Crookes D.J. (2003) The contribution of livelihood activities in Limpopo Province: case study evidence from Makua and Manganeng. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 20, no. 1, pp.143-159.

Lundervold, M., Langvatn, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2003) A comparison of age estimation methods for the saiga antelope Saiga tatarica. Wildlife Biology 9, 45-53. (pdf)

Lundervold, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., O’Callaghan, C., Hamblin, C. (2003) First evidence of bluetongue virus in Kazakhstan. Veterinary Microbiology 92, 281-287.(pdf)

Michiels, N. K. & Kuhl, A. (2003) Altruistic sperm donation in a sperm-dependent parthenogenetic hermaphrodite is stabilized by reciprocal sperm exchange. Journal of Zoology 259, 77-82. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L. and the SCB 2002 Annual Conference Wild Meat Group (2003) Wild meat – the bigger picture. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 351-357.(pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bukreeva, O.M., Coulson, T.N., Lushchekina, A.A., Kholodova, M.V., Bekenov, A.B., Grachev, Iu.A. (2003) Reproductive collapse in saiga antelope harems. Nature 422, 135.(pdf)

Pain, D.J., Cunningham, A.A., Donald, P.F., Duckworth, J.W., Houston, D.C., Katzner, T., Parry-Jones, J., Poole, C., Prakash, V., Round, P., Timmins, R. (2003) Causes and effects of temporospatial declines of Gyps vultures in Asia. Conservation Biology 17(3), 661-671. (pdf)

Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Alimaev, I. (2003) Rangeland degradation in Kazakhstan during the Soviet era: re-examining the evidence. Journal of Arid Environments 53, 419-439.(pdf)

Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2003) Political change and factors limiting numbers of wild and domestic ungulates in Kazakhstan. Human Ecology 31, 87-110.(pdf)


Apostolaki, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J., McAllister, M., Kirkwood, G. (2002) Modelling effects of establishing marine reserves in nursery or spawning grounds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59, 405-415. (pdf)

Clutton-Brock, T.H., Coulson, T.N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Thomson. D., Armstrong, H., (2002) Sex differences in emigration and mortality affect optimal management of deer populations, Nature 415, 633-637. (pdf)

Crookes D.J., de Wit M.P., (2002) Environmental economic valuation and its application in environmental assessment: an evaluation of the status quo with reference to South Africa. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, Vol. 20, no.2, pp. 127-134.

Ling, S., Kümpel, N., Albrechtsen, L. (2002) No new recipes for bushmeat. Oryx 36(4), 330. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Clayton, L.M. (2002) The trade in babirusas and wild pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Economics 42, 165-183. (pdf)


Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) A dynamic game model for the decision to join an aggregation. Ecological modelling 145, 85-99. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Akcakaya, H.R. (2001) Sustainability indices for exploited populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 686-692.(pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kholodova, M.V., Bekenov, A.B., Bukreeva, O.M., Grachev, Iu.A., Amgalan, L., Lushchekina, A.A. (2001) Dramatic declines in saiga antelope populations. Oryx 35, 340-345. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Shea, K., Possingham, H., Coulson, T.N., Wilcox, C. (2001) Competing harvesting strategies in a simulated population under uncertainty. Animal Conservation 4, 157-167. (pdf)


Clayton, L.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Sinaga, D.W., Mustari, A.H. (2000) Effects of a proposed ex situ conservation programme on in situ conservation of the babirusa. Conservation Biology 14, 382-385. (pdf)

Coulson, T.N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Clutton-Brock, T. (2000) A comparison of the relative roles of density and climatic variation on fecundity rates in three contrasting ungulate species. Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, B, 267, 1771-1779. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Coulson, T.N., Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2000) On harvesting a structured ungulate population. Oikos 88, 592-602. (pdf)

Kholodova, M.V., Easton, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2000) The use of hair collected in the field for the study of genetic variability in wild ungulates. Izvestiya Akademiya Nauk 6, 695-701. (pdf)

Robinson, S., Finke, P., Hamaan, B. (2000) The impacts of de-collectivisation on Kazakh pastoralists: Case studies from Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Central Asian Studies, Vol. IV, No. 2: 2-34.


Keeling, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Clayton, L. (1999) Spatial dynamics of two harvested wild pig populations. Natural Resource Modeling, 12, 147-169.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bekenov, A.B., Grachev, Iu.A., Shaikenov, B.Sh., Ivanov, N.P. (1999) The saiga antelope: status of the population, parasites, disease. Izvestiya Akademiya Nauk Kazakhstana, 4 (214), 20-29.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1999) How many to dehorn? A model for decision-making by rhino managers. Animal Conservation, 2, 137-147. (pdf)


Bekenov, A.B., Grachev, Iu. A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1998) The ecology and management of the saiga antelope in Kazakhstan. Mammal Review 28, 1-52. (pdf)

Mesterton-Gibbons, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1998) On the strategic stability of monitoring: implications for cooperative wildlife management programmes in Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 265, 1237-1244. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Lhagvasuren, B. (1998) Population dynamics of the Mongolian Gazelle: An historical analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 240-260. (pdf)


Clayton, L., Keeling, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1997) Bringing home the bacon: A spatial model of wild pig harvesting in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Applications 7, 642-652. (pdf)

Lhagvasuren, B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1997) The status and management of the Mongolian Gazelle Procapra gutturosa populatin. Oryx 31, 127-134. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1997) A stochastic dynamic programming model for the management of the saiga antelope. Ecological Applications 7, 130-142 (pdf)


Milner-Gulland, E.J., Mace, R.H., Scoones, I. (1996) A model of household decisions in dryland agropastoral systems. Agricultural Systems 51, 407-430.


Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bekenov, A.B., Grachev, Iu.A. (1995) The real threat to the saiga antelope. Nature, 377, 488-489 (pdf)


Ginsberg, J.R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1994) Sex-biassed harvesting and population dynamics: Implications for conservation and sustainable use. Conservation Biology 8, 157-166. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1994) Sustainable utilisation of the saiga antelope. Oryx 28, 257-262.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1994) A population model for the management of the saiga antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology 31, 25-39. (pdf)


Leader-Williams, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1993) Policies for the enforcement of wildlife laws: the balance between detection and penalties in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Conservation Biology 7, 611-617. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1993) An econometric analysis of consumer demand for ivory and rhino horn. Environmental and Resource Economics 3, 73-95.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Beddington, J.R. (1993) The exploitation of the elephant for the ivory trade – an historical perspective. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 252, 29-37. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Beddington, J.R. (1993) The relative effects of hunting and habitat destruction on elephant population dynamics over time. Pachyderm 17, 75-90.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Leader-Williams, N., Beddington, J.R. (1993) Is dehorning African rhinos worthwhile?. Pachyderm 17, 52-58.


Mace, G., Collar, N., Cooke, J., Gaston, K., Ginsberg, J., Leader-Williams, N., Maunder, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1992) The development of new criteria for listing species on the IUCN Red List. Species 19, 16-22.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Beddington, J.R., Leader-Williams, N. (1992) Dehorning African rhinos: a model of optimal frequency and profitability. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 249, 83-87. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Leader-Williams, N. (1992) A model of incentives for the illegal exploitation of black rhinos and elephants: Poaching pays in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Applied Ecology 29, 388-401. (pdf)


Milner-Gulland, E.J., Mace, R.H. (1991) The impact of the ivory trade on African elephant populations, as assessed by data from the trade. Biological Conservation 55, 215-229.


Pooley, S. 2014. Burning Table Mountain: an environmental history of fire on the Cape Peninsula, Palgrave Macmillan, 

Middleton, K., Pooley, S., Beinart, W. (eds) (2013) Wild Things: Nature and the Social Imagination. White Horse Press.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fryxell, J., Sinclair, A.R.E. (2011, in press) Animal migration: A synthesis. Oxford University Press.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rowcliffe, J. Marcus (2007) Wildlife Conservation and Sustainable Use: A handbook of techniques. Oxford University Press. Note: The Natural History Book Service will provide free copies of this book to developing country nationals. Weblink.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Mace, Ruth (1998) Conservation of Biological Resources. Blackwell Science.

Book chapters

Knight, A.T., A.S.L. Rodrigues, N. Strange, T. Tew and K.A. Wilson. 2013. Designing effective solutions to conservation planning problems. Pages 362-383 (Chapter 20) in, D. Macdonald and K. Service (editors), Key Topics in Conservation Biology, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Pooley, S. 2013. No Tears for the Crocodile: Investigating calls for the extermination of the Nile crocodile in Zululand, South Africa, to c.1958 In: Wild Things: Nature and the Social Imagination, Eds K. Middleton, S. Pooley, W. Beinart, White Horse Press.

Pooley, S. Invasion of the Crocodiles (2013 in press) In: I. McCalman, J. Frawley (eds) Rethinking Invasion Ecologies from the Environmental Humanities, Routledge Environmental Humanities.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bunnefeld, N., Proaktor, G. (2009) The science of sustainable hunting. In: Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice . Eds. B. Dickson, J. Hutton, W. Adams. Conservation Science and Practice Series, Blackwells.

Hutton, T., A, Mardle, S, Tidd, A.N. (2008). Advances in Fisheries Science. The decline of the fishing fleets along the English and Welsh Coastline. 50 years on from Beverton and Holt. Blackwell Publishing, Eds: A. Payne, J. Cotter, and T. Potter, pages 26– 48.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2007) Institutional Contexts. In: Bushmeat and livelihoods: challenges for the 21 st century . eds. G. Davies & D. Br own. Blackwell Science.

Kumpel, N., East, T., Keylock, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Cowlishaw, G.C. (2007) Determinants of bushmeat consumption and trade in Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea: An urban-rural comparison. The consumptive use of wildlife in the tropics: challenges for the 21st century. eds. G. Davies & D. Brown. Overseas Development Institute.

Loveridge, A., Reynolds, J.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Does sport hunting benefit conservation? In: Ed. D. McDonald & K. Service, Key topics in conservation ch 15, p. 222-238. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) Developing a framework for assessing the sustainability of bushmeat hunting. In: Ed. D. Lavigne, Gaining Ground : In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability. Ch. 20, pp 295-308. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Torgerson, P., Shaikenov, B., Morgan, E. (2004) Transmission dynamics of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis in a patchy environment. In: Species conservation and management: Case studies. Eds. H.R. Akcakaya, M. Burgman, O. Kindvall, P. Sjogren-Gulve, J. Hatfield, M. McCarthy. Oxford University Press. (pdf)

Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2003) Contraction in livestock mobility resulting from state farm re-organisation. Prospects for pastoralists in Kazakstan and Turkmenistan: From State farms to private flocks. Chapter 7, pages 128-145. Ed. C. Kerven. Routledge Curzon, London. (pdf)

Clayton, L., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Sarjono, A.P. (2002) Sustainability of rattan harvesting in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ch. 23 in: Plant conservation in the Tropics: Perspectives and Practice. pp. 445-466. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. (pdf)

Lushchekina, A.A., Kholodova, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) Saiga – living in arid environments. Encyclopaedia of mammals. Ed. D. Macdonald.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) The exploitation of spatially structured populations. Conservation of Exploited Species. eds. J. Reynolds, G. Mace, K. Redford & J. Robinson. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87-109. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) Assessing the sustainability of hunting: insights from bioeconomic modelling. Chapter 10 of Bushmeat hunting in the African Rain Forest, Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science series, Centre for Applied Biodiversity Science, Washington, USA. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Woodroffe, R. (2001) Mammals, Conservation Efforts for. Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, vol. 3, pp. 811-824. ed. S. Levin. Academic Press.

Clayton, L., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2000) The trade in wildlife in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. pp. 473-498. ed. J.R. Robinson & E.L. Bennett. Columbia University Press.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1999) Ecological Economics. In Advanced Ecological Theory: Principles and Applications, ed. J.M. McGlade. Blackwell Science.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Leader-Williams, N, (1992) Illegal Exploitation. In: Economics for the wilds, ed. T. Swanson and E. Barbier. Earthscan Books, UK.

Reviews and editorials

Memmott, J., Cadotte, M., Hulme, P.E., Whittingham, M.J., Kerby, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) Putting applied ecology into practice. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 1-4.

Milner-Gulland, E. J., Fisher, M., Browne, S., Redford, K. H., Spencer, M. & Sutherland, W. J. (2010) Do we need to develop a more relevant conservation literature? Oryx, 44, 1-2

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Challenges and prospects for applied ecology in China. Journal of Applied Ecology 46, 509-510.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) New perspectives on harvesting as one driver of ecosystem dynamics. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 1-3

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2006) One for the Christmas list – a review of State of the Wild by Sharon Guynup. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21. (pdf)

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2004) Taking stock of conservation – a review of “Against Extinction: the story of conservation” by W. Adams. Nature 429, 346-347.

Bennett, E.L., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bakarr, M., Eves, H.E., Robinson, J.G., Wilkie, D.G. (2002) Hunting the world’s wildlife to extinction. Oryx 36, 328-329.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2002) Is bushmeat just another conservation bandwagon? (Editorial). Oryx 36, 1-2.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) Toolkits for conservation – a review of “The conservation handbook” by W.J. Sutherland, and “Quantitative methods for conservation” by S. Ferson & M. Burgman (eds). Animal Conservation 4, 370-371.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2001) Knowing the value of nature – a review of “Wild Solutions” by A. Beattie & P. Ehrlich. Nature 410, 751-752.

Mesterton-Gibbons, M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2000) Conservation of African Wildlife: Modeling issues. (Editorial) Natural Resource Modeling 13, 5-12.

Other publications

Singh, N.J., Amgalabaatar, S., Reading, R.P. (2011) Temporal dynamics of group size and sexual segregation in Ibex. Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia (Halle/Saale, Germany)/ Erforsch. biol. Ress. Mongolei (Halle/Saale) 11: 315-322

Laurence T. Kell, Carlos Palma and Alex Tidd. (2009). STANDARDISATION OF NORTH ATLANTIC ALBACORE, Thunnus alalunga, CPUE. SCRS/09/101.

Ulrich C., Andersen, B.S., Castro J., Jacobsen R.J., Maravelias C., Nielsen J.R., Reeves, S., Santurtun M., Tidd A., Wilson D. (2009). Potentials and challenges in fleet- and métier- based approaches for fisheries management in the CFP. ICES CM2009/R06

Travers, H., Clements, T., Keane. A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Leveling the Playing Field: The Effects of Institutional Controls on Common Pool Resource Extraction. Report prepared for WCS TransLinks Program December 2009

Bunnefeld, N., Börger, L., Nilsen, E.B., Basille, M., Hall, R.J., Ezard, T.H.G., Trierweiler, C., Minderman, J., Mangel, M.S., Gaillard, J-M., Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Attendees of the Populations under Pressure symposium (2009) Coming out of the ivory tower: how to ensure that ecological modelling research remains practical and applied. British Ecological Society Bulletin.

Matthiopoulos, J., Thomas, L., McConnell, B., Duck, C., Thompson D., Pomeroy, P., Harwood, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Wolf, N. & Mangel, M. (2008) Putting long-term, population monitoring data to good use: The Causes of Density Dependence in UK grey seals. SCOS Briefing paper 06/08.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kuhl, A. (2006) Desperately seeking saiga. BBC Wildlife 24, 8, 50-55. (pdf)

Senaratna Sellamutta, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2005) The importance of community participation and empowerment in post-Tsunami rehabilitation: A case study from the Hambantota district in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the 4th International PEP meeting, Colombo, June 2005. (pdf)

Arylov, Y., Badmaev, V., Bekenov, A., Chimeg, J., Entwistle, A., Grachev, Y.A., Lhagvasuren, B., Lushchekina, A., Mallon, D., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Ukrainsky, V. (2004) The saiga antelope – teetering on the brink but still cause for hope. Oryx 38, 250-251. (pdf)

Bykova E., Milner-Gulland E.J., Grachev Yu., Bekenov A., Marmazinskaya N., Kreuzberg-Mukhina E., (in press) Assessment of the desert ungulates in Central Asian region, Proceeding of the International Conference on Desert Ungulate Biology and Conservation, Saudi Arabia, 2004

Kreuzberg-Mukhina, E., Bykova, E., Milner-Gulland E., Grebot B. (2003) Mountain fauna in the Central-Asian: a database of threatened biodiversity. Caprinae. Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, October, 8.

Hancock, P.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Keeling, M.J. (2003) The effects of spatio-temporal habitat change on bearded pigs in Borneo: an overview of future research activities, Asian Wild Pig News, 3(1), 10-11.

Senaratna, S and E. J. Milner-Gulland (2002). What affects livelihoods sustainability of coastal communities in Sri Lanka? Policy Matters – the quarterly journal of the IUCN Commission on Environment, Economics and Social Policy (CEESP) 10, 104-106.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Lushchekina, A.A. (2002) Recommendations for saiga conservation action. Gnusletter 20, 4-7.

Bekenov, A.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Dukravetz, G.M., Grachev, Iu.A., Mityaev, I.D., (2002) On the categories and criteria of IUCN for including animals in Red Books and lists. In: Zoological Investigations in Kazakhstan: State of the art and perspectives. Materials of the International Scientific Conference, 19-21 March 2002, Almaty. (in Russian)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Shaikenov, B.Sh., Morgan, E.R., Torgerson, P.R. (2001) Interactions between saigas and domestic livestock: exchange of parasites and its influence on the dynamics of ungulate populations. Izvestiya MON of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Biological and Medical Series, 3, 84-94. (in Russian)

Lushchekina, A.A., Kholodova, M.V., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Nyambayar, B., Amgalan, L., Neronov, V.M. (2000) A preliminary molecular-genetic study of the Mongolian population of the saiga antelope. International Conference on Central Asian Ecosystems, September 5th-7th 2000. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1999) Agricultural change in Kazakhstan: Effects on stock distribution and numbers. Conference on issues in the conservation and sustainable use of Kazakhstan’s animal biodiversity, April 7th-9th 1999. Institute of Zoology and Animal Genetics, Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences.

Lundervold, M., Baramova, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1999) Brucellosis in saiga antelopes and domestic livestock. Conference on issues in the conservation and sustainable use of Kazakhstan’s animal biodiversity, April 7th-9th 1999. Institute of Zoology and Animal Genetics, Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences.

Morgan, E.R., Torgerson, P., Shaikenov, B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1999) Abomasal nematodes of saiga in the Betpak-dala region of Kazakhstan. Conference on issues in the conservation and sustainable use of Kazakhstan’s animal biodiversity, April 7th-9th 1999. Institute of Zoology and Animal Genetics, Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences.

Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1998) Privatisation and changes in pasture use in Betpak-dala, central Kazakhstan. Presented at CoDoCA, the Conference on Strategic Considerations on the Development of Central Asia. 13-18 September 1998, Urumchi, China.

Lundervold, M., Namet, A., O’Callaghan, C., Grachev, Iu., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Ivanov, N., Bekenov, A.B., Rees, D.M. (1997) A serological survey of Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis in saiga antelopes in Kazakhstan. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Paris, June 1997.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1993) The Exploitation of the African Elephant for ivory – an historical perspective. Proceedings of the 7th U.K. Elephant Workshop. Ed. N.G. Spooner, J.A. Whitear. Enviro-Print, Southampton.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1993) Models of household decision-making under risk: Case studies from the communal areas of Zimbabwe. Coping with uncertainty in Africa’s drylands: Final Technical Report to the Science & Technology for Development Programme of the European Commission. ed. I. Scoones. International Institute for Environment & Development, London.

Renewable Resources Assessment Group (1989) The impact of the ivory trade on the African Elephant population. Ivory Trade Review Group Technical Reports. Prepared for the 7th CITES conference of the parties, Lausanne, October 1989. Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford.